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What the studies say: Restore
It's time
What the studies say: Restore

Smokers (and passive smokers) have lower levels of omega-3.

Dewailly, E., Blanchet, C., Gingras, S., Lemieux, S. & Holub, B. J. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and n-3 fatty acid status in the adult population of James Bay Cree. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76, 85–92 (2002).

Dewailly E, E. et al. Relations between n-3 fatty acid status and cardiovascular disease risk factors among Quebecers. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 74, 603–11 (2001).

Hibbeln, J. R. et al. Smoking , Gender , and Dietary Influences on Erythrocyte Essential Fatty Acid Composition among Patients with Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder. 3223, (2003).

Harris, W. S. et al. Clinical correlates and heritability of erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid content in the Framingham Heart Study. Atherosclerosis 225, 425–31 (2012).

Salisbury, A. C. et al. Predictors of omega-3 index in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Mayo Clin. Proc. 86, 626–32 (2011).

Farzaneh-Far, R., Harris, W. S., Garg, S., Na, B. & Whooley, M. A. Inverse association of erythrocyte n-3 fatty acid levels with inflammatory biomarkers in patients with stable coronary artery disease: The Heart and Soul Study. Atherosclerosis 205, 538–43 (2009).

Leng, G. et al. Relationship between plasma essential fatty acids and smoking, serum lipids, blood pressure and haemostatic and rheological factors. … Essent. Fat. acids 51, 101–108 (1994).

Sala-Vila, A. et al. Determinants of the omega-3 index in a Mediterranean population at increased risk for CHD. Br. J. Nutr. 106, 425–31 (2011).

Simon, J., Fong, J., Bernert, J. & Browner, W. Relation of smoking and alcohol consumption to serum fatty acids. Am. J. … 144, 325–334 (1996).

Hodge, A. M. et al. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition as a biomarker of habitual dietary fat intake in an ethnically diverse cohort. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 17, 415–26 (2007).

 

Smokers (and passive smokers) have lower levels of vitamin C.

Fehily, a M., Phillips, K. M. & Yarnell, J. W. Diet, smoking, social class, and body mass index in the Caerphilly Heart Disease Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 40, 827–33 (1984).

Galan, P. et al. Serum concentrations of beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, zinc and selenium are influenced by sex, age, diet, smoking status, alcohol consumption and corpulence in a general French adult population. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 59, 1181–90 (2005).

Wei, W., Kim, Y. & Boudreau, N. Association of smoking with serum and dietary levels of antioxidants in adults: NHANES III, 1988-1994. Am. J. Public Health 91, 258–64 (2001).

Brook, M. & Grimchaw, J. J. Vitamin C Concentration of Plasma and Leukocytes as Related to Smoking Habit, Age, and Sex of Humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 21, 1254–1258 (1968).

Giraud, D. W., Martin, H. D. & Driskell, J. A. Plasma and dietary vitamin C and E levels of tobacco chewers, smokers, and nonusers. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 95, 798–800 (1995).

Marangon, K. et al. Diet, antioxidant status, and smoking habits in French men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 67, 231–9 (1998).

Pfeiffer, C. & Sternberg, M. Dietary supplement use and smoking are important correlates of biomarkers of water-soluble vitamin status after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. J. Nutr, 957–965 (2013).

Schectman, G., Byrd, J. C. & Gruchow, H. W. The Influence of Smoking on Vitamin C Status in Adults. Am. J. Public Health 79, 158–162 (1989).

Schleicher, R. L., Carroll, M. D., Ford, E. S. & Lacher, D. A. Serum vitamin C and the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency in the United States: 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2003–2004 (2009). doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27016.1

Theron, A. J. et al. Investigation of the relative contributions of cigarette smoking and mineral dust exposure to activation of circulating phagocytes, alterations in plasma concentrations of vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene, and pulmonary dysfunction in South African. Occup. Environ. Med. 51, 564–7 (1994).

Walmsley, C. M., Bates, C. J., Prentice, A. & Cole, T. J. Relationship between cigarette smoking and nutrient intakes and blood status indices of older people living in the UK: further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 years and over, 1994/95. Public Health Nutr. 2, 199–208 (1999).

 

Smokers (and passive smokers) have lower levels of vitamin E.

Galan, P. et al. Serum concentrations of beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, zinc and selenium are influenced by sex, age, diet, smoking status, alcohol consumption and corpulence in a general French adult population. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 59, 1181–90 (2005).

Wei, W., Kim, Y. & Boudreau, N. Association of smoking with serum and dietary levels of antioxidants in adults: NHANES III, 1988-1994. Am. J. Public Health 91, 258–64 (2001).

Giraud, D. W., Martin, H. D. & Driskell, J. A. Plasma and dietary vitamin C and E levels of tobacco chewers, smokers, and nonusers. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 95, 798–800 (1995).

Marangon, K. et al. Diet, antioxidant status, and smoking habits in French men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 67, 231–9 (1998).

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